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Weight Science
“Adults with Greater Weight Satisfaction Report More Positive Health Behaviors and Have Better Health Status Regardless of BMI”, Blake, C.E., Hébert, J.R., Lee, D., Swann, A.A., Steck, S.E., Sui, X., Kuk, J.L., Baruth, M., & Blair, S.N.
(2013) - Journal of Obesity, 2013: 291371. doi: 10.1155/2013/291371 Abstract Background. Prior studies suggest that weight satisfaction may preclude changes in behavior that lead to healthier weight among individuals who are overweight or obese. Objective. To gain a better understan . . .

“Association of All-Cause Mortality With Overweight and Obesity Using Standard Body Mass Index Categories: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis”, Flegal, K.M., Kit, B.K., Orpana, H., & Graubard, B.I.
(2013) - Source: JAMA: 309(1), 71-82. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.113905 Importance: Estimates of the relative mortality risks associated with normal weight, overweight, and obesity may help to inform decision making in the clinical setting. Objective:To perform a systematic review of reported hazar . . .

“Chronic Weight Dissatisfaction Predicts Type 2 Diabetes Risk: Aerobic Center Longitudinal Study.”, Wirth, M.D., Blake, C.E., Hébert, J.R., Sui, X., & Blair, S.N.
(2014, March 3) - Health Psychology.  doi: 10.1037/hea0000058 Abstract: Objective: Weight dissatisfaction, defined as discordance between actual and goal weight, may be associated with increased risk for several obesity-related comorbidities. The purpose of the study was to examine the asso . . .

“Combined effect of cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity on mortality in patients with coronary artery disease”, Goel, K. et al.
(2010) - Source: American Heart Journal, 161(3): 590-597. doi:10.1016/j.ahj.2010.12.012 Background: High cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index (BMI) are associated with decreased mortality in patients with coronary artery disease. Our objective was to determine the joint impact of fit . . .

“Correlates and predictors of weight gain in young adults: the CARDIA study.”, Bild, D.E., Sholinsky, et al
(1996) - Source: International Journal of Obesity Related Metabolic Disorders 20: 47-55. When 18 baseline factors were examined for associations with 15-year weight gain of greater than equal to 15 kg, comparing to those participants who maintained a stable weight (within 5 kg of baseline), only . . .

“Excess deaths associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity.”, Flegal, K, et al
(2005) - Source: JAMA 293 (15): 1861-1867. This article examined the prevalence of obesity rates in the United States with respect to the association of body weight with excess mortality rates.  The objective was to estimate deaths associated with underweight, overweight, and obese BMI group . . .

“Exercise capacity and body composition as predictors of mortality among men with diabetes.”, Church, T.S., Cheng, Y.J., Earnest, C.P., et al
(2004)  Source: Diabetes Care 27: 83-88. In this observational cohort study, they calculated all-cause death rates in men with diabetes across quartiles of fitness and BMI categories. OBJECTIVE: To quantify the relation of fitness to mortality among men with diabetes, adjusted for BMI a . . .

“Fifth Phase of the Epidemiologic Transition The Age of Obesity and Inactivity ”, Gaziano, J M.
(2010),  Source: JAMA.303(3):275-276. doi:10.1001/jama.2009.2025. In 1900, Henry Ford unveiled the first car made in Detroit, the International Ladies' Garment Workers Union was founded in New York, and San Francisco was placed under a federal quarantine to prevent the spread of buboni . . .

“Financial Incentives for Extended Weight Loss: A Randomized, Controlled Trial”, John, L.K., Loewenstein, G., Troxel, A.B., Norton, L., Fassbender, J., Volpp, K.
January 20, 2011 ~ Source: Journal of General Internal Medicine, 26(6):621–6 BACKGROUND: Previous efforts to use incentives for weight loss have resulted in substantial weight regain after 16 weeks. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a longer term weight loss intervention using financial incentive . . .

“Fitness vs. Fatness on All-Cause Mortality: A Meta-Analysis”, Barry, V.W., Baruth, M., Beets, M.W., Durstine, J.L., Liu, J., & Blair, S.N.
(2014) - Source:  Progress in Cardiovascular Disease, 56(4), 382-390. doi: 10.1016/j.pcad.2013.09.002 Abstract The purpose of this study was to quantify the joint association of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and weight status on mortality from all causes using meta-analytical methodolog . . .

“Healthy Lifestyle Habits and Mortality in Overweight and Obese Individuals”, Matheson, E., King, D., Everett, C.
(2012). Source: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine 25(1): 9-15 Background: Though the benefits of healthy lifestyle choices are well-established among the general population, less is known about how developing and adhering to healthy lifestyle habits benefits obes . . .

“Is hypertension more benign when associated with obesity?”, Barrett-Connor, EL & Khaw, K
(1985) - Source: Circulation 72(1):  53-60. This study tested the hypothesis that blood pressure is less predictive of ischemic heart disease death in obese subjects than in non-obese subjects by examining the mortality experience of a population of 1727 men 50 to 79 years of age who have be . . .

“Is the association between healthy lifestyle behaviors and cardiovascular mortality modified by overweight status? The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study”, Eguchi, E., Iso, H., Naohito, T., Yatsuya, H., Tamakoshi, A.
(2014) - Preventive Medicine. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2013.12.004 Highlights We examine the impact of excess weight on lifestyle behaviors and cardiovascular mortality. A community-based, cohort study of Japanese men and women aged 40–79 years who were followed until 2009. The . . .

“Long-Term Effects of Change in Body Weight on All-Cause Mortality: A Review”, Andres, R, Muller, DC, Sorkin, JD
(1993) - Source: Annals of Internal Medicine 119:  737-743. Objective was to summarize published studies analyzing the effects of long-term change in body weight on all-cause mortality and have not been reported elsewhere. Despite the diversity of the populations studied, the degree of "clin . . .

“Long-term Effects of Large-volume Liposuction on Metabolic Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease”, Mohammed, B.S., Cohen, S., Reeds, D., Young, V.L., & Klein, S.
(2008) - Source:  Obesity, 16(12): 2648-2651.  doi: 10.1038/oby.2008.418 Abstract: Abdominal obesity is associated with metabolic risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). Although we previously found that using liposuction surgery to remove abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue . . .

“Medicare's search for effective obesity treatments: diets are not the answer”, Mann T, Tomiyama AJ, Westling E, Lew AM, Samuels B, Chatman J.
(2007) - Source:  American Psychologist 62(3):220-33. The authors review studies of the long-term outcomes of calorie-restricting diets to assess whether dieting is an effective treatment for obesity. These studies show that one third to two thirds of dieters regain more weight than . . .

“Metabolic Slowing with Massive Weight Loss despite Preservation of Fat-Free Mass”, Johannsen, D.L., Knuth, N.D., Huizenga, R., Rood, J.C., Ravussin, E., Hall, K.D.
(2012) ~ Source: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology, 97(7):2489-96.  Context: An important goal during weight loss is to maximize fat loss while preserving metabolically active fat-free mass (FFM). Massive weight loss typically results in substantial loss of FFM potentially slowing met . . .

“Mortality and optimal body mass index in a sample of the US population.”, Durazo-Arvizu, R, et al
(1998) - Source: American Journal of Epidemiology 147: 739-749. In this paper, the authors model the non-monotonic relation between body mass index (BMI) (weight (kg)/height2 (m2)) and mortality in 13,242 black and white participants in the NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study in order to estim . . .

“Obesity Paradoxes”, McAuley, P.A., & Blair, S.N.
(2011) - Journal of Sports Sciences, 29(8), 773-782. DOI: 10.1080/02640414.2011.553965. “In this review, we examine the original obesity paradox phenomenon (i.e. in cardiovascular disease populations, obese patients survive better), as well as three other related paradoxes (pre-ob . . .

“Obesity, atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease”, Barrett-Connor, EL
(1985) - Source: Annals of Internal Medicine, 103: 1010-1019. Although several risk factors for heart disease including high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, and lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities are associated with overweight, overweight is not consistently associated with coronary hear . . .

“Physical Fitness, Mortality and Obesity”, Barlow, CE, Kohl, HW, Gibbons, LW, Blair, SN
(1995) - Source: Int Journal of Obesity Related Metabolic Disorders. 19: (suppl. 4): S41-44. Read more . . .

“Predictors of weight change in men: results from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study.”, Coakley, EH, Rimm, EB, Colditz, G, Kawachi, L, Willett, W
(1998) - Source: Int. J. Obes. Related Metab. Disord.  22: 89-96.  OBJECTIVE: Since the prevalence of adult obesity is increasing in the United States, this study examined the effect of changing common habits (exercise, TV viewing, smoking and eating habits) on four year change in body . . .

“Predictors of weight change over two years among a population of working adults: The healthy worker project.”, French, SA, et al
(1994) - Source: International Journal of Obesity. 18: 145-154. The present study examined behavioural predictors of body weight cross-sectionally and longitudinally in a cohort of 1639 male and 1913 female employees in 32 companies participating in a worksite intervention study for smoking ce . . .

“Prevalence and Trends in Obesity Among US Adults, 1999-2008 ”, Flegal; K.M., Carroll, M.D.; Ogden, C.L., et al.
January 13, 2010, Source: JAMA In 2007-2008, the prevalence of obesity was 32.2% among adult men and 35.5% among adult women. The increases in the prevalence of obesity previously observed do not appear to be continuing at the same rate over the past 10 years, particularly for women and possib . . .

“Prevalence of Childhood and Adult Obesity in the United States, 2011-2012”, Ogden, C.L., Carroll, M.D., Kit, B.K., & Flegal, K.M.
(2014) - Source: JAMA, 311(8), 806-814. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.732 Importance: More than one-third of adults and 17% of youth in the United States are obese, although the prevalence remained stable between 2003-2004 and 2009-2010. Objective: To provide the most recent national estimates of . . .

“Prevalence of High Body Mass Index in US Children and Adolescents, 2007-2008 ”, Ogden, C.L., Carroll, M.D, Curtin, L.R., Lamb, M., Flega, K.A.
January 13, 2010, Source: JAMA The prevalence of high body mass index (BMI) among children and adolescents in the United States appeared to plateau between 1999 and 2006.   Click for PDF of full text.    . . .

“Prevalence of uncomplicated obesity in an Italian obese population”, Lacobellis, G, et al
(2005) - Source: Obesity Res. 13(6): 1116-1122. This study shows that a substantial part of an Italian obese population has uncomplicated obesity, and the prevalence of adverse risk factors in this sample is unexpectedly low and partially independent of obesity degree. Uncomplicated obesity co . . .

“Prospective study of intentionality of weight loss and mortality in older women: The Iowa women's health study.”, French, SA, et al
(1999) - Source: American Journal of Epidemiology 149: 504-515. Several epidemiologic investigations have suggested that weight loss is associated with increased mortality risk but have not examined whether the weight loss was intentional or unintentional. The authors examined whether the assoc . . .

“Socioeconomic and behavioral risk factors for mortality in a national 19-year prospective study of U.S. adults”, Lantz, P.M., Golberstein, E., House, J.S., & Morenoff, J.
(2010) - Source: Social Science & Medicine, 70: 1558-1566 Many demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral risk factors predict mortality in the United States. However, very few population-based longitudinal studies are able to investigate simultaneously the impact of a variety of social fa . . .

“The downside of weight loss: Realistic intervention in body-weight trajectory”, Bosomworth, N.J.
(2012) - Canadian Family Physician, 58(5), 517-523. Objective To explore the reasons why long-term weight loss is seldom achieved and to evaluate the consequences of various weight trajectories, including stability, loss, and gain. Quality of evidence Studies evaluating population wei . . .

“The epidemiology of overweight and obesity: public health crisis or moral panic?”, Campos, P., Saguy, A., Ernsberger, P., Oliver, E., & Gaesser, G.
(2006 - Source: International Journal of Epidemiology. 35(1): 55-60. National and international health organizations have focused increasingly on a perceived obesity epidemic said to pose drastic threats to public health. Indeed, some medical experts have gone so far as to predict th . . .

“The epidemiology of overweight and obesity: public health crisis or moral panic?”, Campos, P, Saguy, A, Ernsberger, P, Oliver, E, Gaesser, G
2005 - Source: International Journal of Epidemiology   The current scientific evidence should prompt health professionals and policy makers to consider whether it makes sense to treat body weight as a barometer of public health. It should also make us pause to consider how propagat . . .

“The Joint Effects of Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Adiposity on Mortality Risk in Men With Hypertension”, P McAuley, X Sui, T Church, J Hardin, J Myers & S Blair
Background Whether higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) attenuates the mortality risk associated with higher adiposity in adults with hypertension (HTN) is poorly understood. Methods Participants were 13,155 men (mean age, 47.7 (s.d., 9.9) years) who completed a baseline health examinati . . .

“The Obese Without Cardiometabolic Risk Factor Clustering and the Normal Weight With Cardiometabolic Risk Factor Clustering Prevalence and Correlates of 2 Phenotypes Among the US Population”, Wildman, R.P., Muntner, P., Reynolds, K., McGinn, A.P., Rajpathak, S., Wylie-Rosett, J., & Sowers, M.R.
(2008)  - Source: Archives of Internal Medicine, 168(15), 1617-24. doi: 10.1001/archinte.168.15.1617 These statistics come from NHANES data (1999-2004) which is considered the most reliable data we have on the health status of our population.  NIH and CDC have taken note o . . .

“The obesity paradox - a parsimonious explanation for relations among obesity, mortality rate and aging?”, Childers, D.K., & Allison, D.B.
(2010) - Source: International Journal of Obesity (2010) 34, 1231–1238 Current clinical guidelines and public health statements generically prescribe body mass index (BMI; kgm–2) categories regardless of the individual’s situation (age, risk for diseases, and so on). However, re . . .

“The obesity paradox in community-acquired bacterial pneumonia ”, Corrales-Medinaa, V.F., Valayamb, J., Serpab, J.A., Ruedac, A.M., & Musherb, D.M.
September, 2010 - Source:  International Journal of Infectious Diseases Background The impact of obesity on the outcome of pneumonia is uncertain. Methods  We retrospectively identified 266 hospitalized patients with proven pneumococcal or Haemophilus community-acquired pneumonia w . . .

“The politics of evidence on domestic terrorists: Obesity discourses and their effects”, Rail, Genevieve, Dave Holmes, & Murray, Stuart J.
2010 -  Source:  Social Theory & Health (2010) 8, 259–279. The recent construction of an ‘obesity epidemic’ has been fueled by epidemiologically-based studies recuperated by the media and suggesting the rapid acceleration of obesity rates in the Western world. Stud . . .

“Thinness and weight loss: Beneficial or detrimental to longevity?”, Gaesser, G
(1999) - Source: Medicine and science in sports and exercise 31(8): 1118-1128. This review examined the hypotheses that 1) low body mass index (BMI) is optimal for longevity and 2) weight loss reduces mortality rates. The preponderance of epidemiological evidence fails to support either of th . . .

“When Overweight Is the Normal Weight: An Examination of Obesity Using a Social Media Internet Database”, Kuebler, M., Elad, Y-T., Pelleg, D., Puhl, R.M., & Muennig, P.
(2013, September 18) - PLOS One Journal, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0073479 Abstract Using a large social media database, Yahoo Answers, we explored postings to an online forum in which posters asked whether their height and weight qualify themselves as “skinny,” “thin,& . . .




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